The api gravity measurement is a positive number that is inversely correlated to crude oil specific gravity the lighter the crude oil, the higher the api gravity. The american petroleum institute established api gravity measure as a measure of the density of petroleum liquids relative to water. Soy oil, obtained by solvent extraction, is the dominant vegetable oil worldwide. Hemp oil on fabric to waterproof hemp raw oil extract winterization technology and process. So any liquid with a density greater than water has a specific gravity greater than 1. Specific gravity of transformer oil, where to draw your sample. The specific gravity of diesel fuel oil varies between 0. Api gravity is calculated from oil specify gravity. Jun 30, 2019 the specific gravity of lube oil is the ratio of the density of lube oil to that of a reference substance usually water. Oil specific gravity is calculated at standard conditions using the density of fresh water as the reference density. Oil density is often reported in terms of api gravity. Specific gravity resource application note smd fluid controls. The density of diesel fuel oil 20 to 60 at 15 degree centigrade is found to be in the range of 820 to 950 kilograms per cubic meter. Specific gravity and density oil and gas separator.
The american petroleum institute characterizes oil in terms of api gravity. Jan 11, 2018 specific gravity is a concept that shows up in a variety of industrial applications, particularly as it relates to fluid dynamics. Api gravity is one of the key characteristics of crude oil that, along with other characteristics such as sulfur content, is used by refiners when evaluating different crude streams for processing into petroleum products. Specific gravity is important in determining the quality and purity of an essential oil. The specific gravity of an object is the ratio between the density of an object to a reference liquid. It is commonly used in cooking, for frying foods or as a salad dressing. Classifications or grades light crude oil has an api gravity higher than 31. Specific gravity rule of thumb if the specific gravity of an insulating fluid is greater than 1, sample from the top. Density of engine oil, sae 30 in 285 units and reference. Specific gravity for liquids is nearly always measured with respect to water at its densest at 4 c or 39.
Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as a human. Specific gravities for some common fluids like acetone, alcohol, turpentine, oil and more. Therefore it is important to select the proper float switch and float for your application. Specific gravity and api gravity are both measurements of density. This information can be used to tell whether olive oil will float or sink if dropped in water buoyancy. The greater the api gravity, the less dense the liquid. There is more information available for specific gravity tests than any other test. A flask made to hold a known volume of liquid at a specified temperature usually 20c. Specific gravities for some common fluids like acetone, alcohol, turpentine, oil and more specific gravity sg is a dimensionless unit defined for liquids as the ratio of the density of the substance to the density of water at a specified temperature. Specific gravity is the density of a substance divided by the density of water. Specific gravity is an expression of density in relation to the density of a standard or reference usually water. Api stands for the american petroleum institute, which is the industry organization that created this measure calculation of api gravity.
Since at standard temperature and pressure water has a density of 1 gramcm 3, and since all of the units cancel, specific gravity is usually very close to the same value as density but without any units. They are many common crude types like west texas, brent api gravity is a measure of how light or heavy the crude oil. Specific gravity of oil calculator convert api to specific. Specific gravity chart fluid temperature deg c specific gravity heptane 25 0. In the imperial measurement system, you have to convert the mass in slugs to weight in pounds. Flush 24 quarts of waste oil through the sample valve before collecting the sample. So to get the volume, pour the oil into a graduated cylinder or measuring cup same.
Liquids with a density lower than water, which includes most crude oil grades and petroleum products, will have a. Liquids with a density lower than water, which includes most crude oil grades and petroleum products, will have a specific gravity between 0. Use the online api to specific gravity converter to find the sp gr of an oil by providing the api gravity. Specific gravity is especially important for the petroleum industry. Light cycle oil safety data sheet according to regulation ec no. The specific gravity depends on the particular oil, some are lighter, some heavier. The relative density of petroleum liquids can also be uncovered by using api gravity value. Specific gravity, also referred to as relative density, is used to relate the weight or density of liquids to that of water. And just like kilometers and miles, neither is more accurate than the other. Api is calculated from a hydrocarbons specific gravity using this formula api 141.
For example, if youve ever taken your car in for service and the mechanic showed you how small plastic balls floated in your transmission fluid, youve seen specific gravity. The difference in weights is divided by the weight of an equal volume of water to give the specific gravity of the liquid. Density of lubricating oil as function of temperature variations in lubricating oil density are shown as function of temperatur, together with volume correction factors. For example, if the specific gravity of water is 1. The density of crude oil and liquid hydrocarbons is usually reported in terms of specific gravity sg or relative density, defined as the density of the liquid material at 60f 15. The official formula used to derive the gravity of petroleum liquids from the specific gravity sg, as follows. Most of the time you will not be given a fluid gradient or an average specific gravity, you will need to calculate it.
Aug 23, 2016 api gravity to specific gravity and density chart if you need need to convert other value use our online api gravity calculator on the top. Feb 06, 2014 this feature is not available right now. Specific gravity of diesel fuel oil is recorded at 15. Most of the production is consumed as salad oil, cooking oil, and margarine. For example, acetic acid has a specific gravity sg of 1. The american petroleum institute gravity, or api gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water. Since water has a specific gravity of 1 at sea level, liquids and substances with a specific gravity lower than 1 will float in water. Api gravity is a commonly used index of the density of a crude oil or refined products. In the metric system specific gravity is the same as in the english system. Specific gravity sp gr measures the ratio of density of the substance to the density of water in a given temperature, i. In the oil industry, specific gravity is a common quality specification for finished products. It is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps, and has additional uses in some. Solution this problem may be quickly solved using the spreadsheet program oilproperties.
It is also used in a variety of prepared foods such as frozen desserts and coffee whiteners. Density massvolume an overview sciencedirect topics. Specific gravity sg is the ratio of the objects density to that of water. Specific gravity is the heaviness of a substance compared to that of water, and it is expressed without units. The scale of api gravity was adjusted so that most petroleum liquids fall between 10 and 70 degrees api gravity. When crude oil is taken from the ground, refineries separate the crude into tar, kerosene, gasoline, hydraulic oil and many other compounds. Calculate how much of this gravel is required to attain a specific depth in a cylindrical, quarter cylindrical or in a rectangular shaped aquarium or pond weight to volume. Once you know density, you know mass per unit volume, and from that you can determine the weight. The specific gravity of all other materials are compared to water as a fraction heavier or fraction lighter density, no matter how small or large the fraction is. The term specific gravity means density in comparison to that of water. The hydraulic oil is also resistant to foaming, which causes poor, slow hydraulic system response. Api gravity can be converted to specific gravity using the api to specific gravity conversion equation, while specific gravity can be converted to api gravity using the specific to api gravity conversion equation. Specific gravity and density specific gravity is the ratio of a liquids density to the density of water. Learn how to measure specific gravity and why its important to making great beer.
Specific weight of transformer oil is the ratio of its weight at 20. Jan 24, 2015 specific gravity rule of thumb if the specific gravity of an insulating fluid is greater than 1, sample from the top. Specific gravity what is it and why does it matter. The knowledge of specific gravities and boiling points allows refineries to separate these compounds efficiently. Specific gravity of diesel fuel oil is a comparison of its density with that of pure water. Milf859 fuel oil, burner included navy special fuel oil nsfo, which was a black oil used for generating steam, while milf16884 fuel oil, diesel marine was specified for the diesel engines used to power smaller craft and for auxiliary power on some ships. The specific gravity of a gas is the ratio of the density of the gas to the density of air at standard conditions of temperature and pressure. Api gravity to specific gravity and density chart if you need need to convert other value use our online api gravity calculator on the top. Toxicity of bakken crude oil toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism. Physical and chemical properties of crude oil and oil products. Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio of the density mass of a unit volume of a substance to the density of a given reference material. The specific gravity of olive oil is the ratio of the density of olive oil to that of a reference substance usually water.
Specific gravity of common liquids and fluids like alcohol, oils, benzene, water and many more sponsored links specific gravity of a liquid is the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water at 4 o c. According to simetric, the density of pure water at 4 degree centigrade is considered as the baseline for specific gravity. Most of the time the flowe is not tested but this is a. Specific gravity is calculated as the ratio of the density of a liquid to the density of water. If the oil is heated, its specific weight decreases, and vise versa when the oil is cold. For example, if youve ever taken your car in for service and the mechanic showed you how small plastic balls floated in your transmission fluid, youve seen specific gravity in action. Hemp seed oil specific gravity hemp oil for skin test tablespoon of hemp oil a day. The specific gravity of diesel fuel oil is reported at 15. The bottle is weighed, filled with the liquid whose specific gravity is to be found, and weighed again.
Because it is a ratio, it has no units but the temperature of the fluid and the water must be expressed. Sep 16, 2010 learn how to measure specific gravity and why its important to making great beer. Most of the essential oils have an specific gravity between 0. Physical properties of oil specific gravitythe specific gravity of a substance is a comparison of its density to that of water. Density, specific weight and specific gravity an introduction to density, specific gravity and specific weight formulas with examples. The importance of specific gravity dynamix agitators. A rule of thumb is 1 gram of cannabis flower infused 100mg. Specific gravity is a ratio of the density of a fluid over the density of water at given temperatures. Api gravity is gradated in degrees on a hydrometer instrument and was designed so that most values would fall between 10 and 70 api gravity. Light oil also made up more than half of the oil produced in 2015.
Usually, our reference liquid is water, which has a density of 1 gml or 1 gcm3. Oil compressibility an overview sciencedirect topics. What is the weight specific gravity of oil answers. The aw 46 hydraulic oil specifications it still runs. Api gravity calculator crude oil api gravity chart. Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed. They both can be used to measure the gravity of a fluid, such as hydraulic oil, in the same way that miles or kilometers can both be used to measure distance. Api gravity is a measure of how heavy or light crude oil is compared to water density of crude oil density of water. A specific gravity scale developed by the american petroleum institute for measuring the relative density of various petroleum liquids, expressed in degrees.
Density is defined as mass per unit volume of a fluid. Api gravity is related to the specific gravity by the following equation. Physiochemical testing of essential oils part 1 specific. Specific gravity is a unitless measurement that is derived as a ratio of either the weight of another liquid or the density of another liquid divided by the weight or density of water. Both density and specific gravity describe mass and may be used to compare different substances. Density is a state function and for a pure compound depends on both temperature and pressure and is shown by liquid.
Specific gravity is a concept that shows up in a variety of industrial applications, particularly as it relates to fluid dynamics. That means it will float on the surface and cleaning crews can concentrate on skimming oil off the water. Specific gravity may be explained as the ratio of the weight of a specific volume to the weight of an equal volume of water at a specific temperature. Physical and chemical properties of crude oil and oil products 1 density, specific gravity, and api gravity density is defined as mass per unit volume of a fluid. This information can be used to tell whether lube oil will float or sink if dropped in water buoyancy. Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives the fruit of olea europaea. Api gravity is measured as the inverse of the density of a petroleum liquid relative to water. Aug 10, 2017 the specific gravity of diesel fuel oil lies in the range of 0. Crude oils vary depending on their specific gravity so this is an average for crude oil in the u.1270 43 767 610 313 502 1120 583 186 122 9 393 1324 796 629 196 1572 58 680 735 472 1414 622 97 1043 1516 1290 1114 335 1369 99 332 467 434