Hydrocracking is a twostage process combining catalytic cracking and hydrogenation, where heavy feedstock is cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce more desirable products. It takes heavy oil and cracks it into gasoline and kerosene jet fuel. Hydrocracking, processing heavy feedstocks to maximize. The hoil rc rc stands for resid cracking process uses ebullatedbed hydrocracking technology to process heavy feedstock residues atmospheric and vacuum residue with high metals, sulfur, nitrogen, asphaltenes and solid contents. The main scope of this research topic is zeolitebased catalysts for heavy oil hydrocracking to produce high quality gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and other feedstocks for petrochemicals. The homogeneous dispersed catalysts are divided into watersoluble dispersed catalysts and oilsoluble dispersed catalysts. The thermal hydrocracking of mexican heavy fuel oil was studied at 1200 psia and different reaction temperatures 370, 380, 390 and 400c.
Hydrocracking is a catalytic chemical process used in petroleum refineries for converting the highboiling hydrocarbons in petroleum to lowboiling products such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel and diesel oil. Zeolitebased catalysts for heavy oil hydrocracking. In other words, the main application is to upgrade vacuum gas oil alone or blended with other. Hydrocracking process is one of the effective processes for obtaining motor fuels of high quality from heavy oil residues fuel oil, goudron.
Us patent for process for hydrocracking heavy oil and oil. Pdf hydrocracking kinetics of a heavy crude oil on a liquid. Therefore, it is important to have a specific designed catalyst that is suitable to the targeted heavy oil hydrocracking. Ep3104968a1 process for hydrocracking heavy oil and oil. Unlike a hydrotreater, hydrocracking uses hydrogen to break cc bonds hydrotreatment is conducted prior to hydrocracking to protect the catalysts in a hydrocracking process. Catalysts for slurryphase hydrocracking of heavy oil have undergone. Kinetic parameters were estimated from the experimental results obtained in a fixedbed downflow reactor.
This proprietary vacuum resid slurry hydrocracking vrsh technology has the potential to increase yields of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel from heavy and ultraheavy crude oil and could be used to. The xrd and xps patterns suggested that the major existence form of dispersed mo catalyst in slurryphase hydrocracking was mos 2. Processes and catalysts for hydrocracking of heavy oil and residues. Analysis of the thermal hydrocracking of heavy fuel oil. Hydrocracking is one of the most versatile refining process for converting heavy fuel oil components into naphtha, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil or highquality. Over the last several years we have seen an increased demand for high quality distillate fuels and this is expected to continue over the next decade. A hydrocracking unit, or hydrocracker, takes gas oil, which is heavier and has a higher boiling range than distillate fuel oil, and cracks the heavy molecules into distillate and gasoline in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst. Advanced hydrocracking technology upgrades extra heavy oil. Hydrocracking, processing heavy feedstocks to maximize high. Unconverted hydrocarbon can then be recycled to the hydrocracking step for further conversion, sent to a second hydrocracking vessel, or sent to another conversion unit as feed e.
We then develop process economics for two bitumen upgrading processes that both integrate hydrocracking with hydrotreating of the hydrocracked gas oil and lighter products to produce sco. Resid hydrocracking better than delayed coking in case studies. Hydrocracking is a catalytic process widely used in refineries to convert heavy oil fractions into high quality middle distillates and light products such as diesel. Topse31, 32 proposed that the sh groups on the mos 2 catalyst surface, which were created h. The hydrocracking hc process is able to remove the undesirable aromatic compounds from petroleum stocks producing cleaner fuels and more effective lubricants. Grange, editors processes and catalysts for hydrocracking of heavy oil and residues f. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed. Hydrocracking process of fuel oil using halloysite modified by. Therefore, catalyst used for heavy oil hydrocracking process is different from the normal distillate hydrocracking process.
The first process hydrocracks vacuum residue in ebullated bed reactors in a single stage without heavy oil recycle. In the refining process, in general, the longer the hydrocarbon molecule, the higher the temperature it takes to boil it out of crude oil. Processes and catalysts for hydrocracking of heavy oil and. The hydrocracker upgrades lowquality heavy gas oils. Kinetic model for moderate hydrocracking of heavy oils. The resulting mix of converted and unconverted hydrocarbon is then separated. Jun 15, 2005 in this work, a kinetic model for hydrocracking of heavy oils is proposed. Hydrotreatment and hydrocracking of oil fractions g.
What is hydrocracking technology in petroleum refining. Chemical processing how oil refining works howstuffworks. Duan state key laboratory of heavy oil processing, china university. Distillate hydrocracking is a refining process for conversion of heavy gas oils and heavy diesels or similar boilingrange heavy distillates into light distillates naphtha, kerosene, diesel, etc. Uops uniflex mc process is a slurry hydrocracking process which achieves the highest conversion and produces the maximum naphtha and diesel yield compared to other residue conversion technologies. Refiners want to process such heavy feeds in order to maximize profitability from conversion units.
Catalysts for slurryphase hydrocracking of heavy oil have undergone two development phases, that is, heterogeneous solid powder catalysts and homogeneous dispersed catalysts. Thus hydrocracking becomes the technology of choice to address this market need. Gas oil hydrotreating dao isomerate gas alkyl feed alkylate polymerization naphtha gases butanes lpg reformate naphtha fuel oil bottoms distillates distillate hydrotreating cat naphtha cycle oils sda bottoms coker naphtha heavy coker gas oil light coker gas oil sulfur plant sulfur naphtha fuel oil solvent dewaxing lube oil waxes. It can be used to recover more value from crude oil and to meet the demand for specific products. Residue hydrocracking solutions for refinery sustainability. The proposed lump kinetic model fitted the data for. However, when processing heavy fractions, such as heavy gas oils or. Further, heavy oil that is derived from different geographical areas possess different properties.
Hydrocracking processes distillate hydrocracking is a refining process for conversion of heavy gas oils and heavy diesels or similar boilingrange heavy distillates into light distillates naphtha, kerosene, diesel, etc. The temperature needed to boil out gasoline might be only 40 celsius while a temperature of over 400 celsius might be needed for heavy gas oil. Catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy oils and petroleum. The slurryphase hydrocracking is a promising technology, which could process inferior feedstock oils with the characteristics of high metal. This pep report provides an overview of the heavy oil hydrocracking process, feed and product supply and demand, hydrocracking chemistry, catalysts and hardware technology since pep report 228, refinery residue upgrading, issued in 2000. Thermal hydrocracking and catalytic hydrocracking of heavy oil and model reactant have been carried out to investigate the effect of dispersed mo catalyst on slurryphase hydrocracking.
May 30, 2000 mixing a mixture of the separated coke and asphaltene with nonhydrocracked heavy oil to produce a feedstock for hydrocracking. Various residue hydrocracking processes are now commercially employed using fixed bed, moving bed or ebullated bed reactors. The main feedstock is vacuum gas oil, a heavy fraction of petroleum. Hydrocracking is an important source of diesel and jet. Diesel range material can also be drawn off at the separation steps to. Hydrotreating is a process widely used in the petroleum industry for producing high quality fuels and as part of a scheme for upgrading heavy crude oil by reducing sulfur, nitrogen andor metal content chen et al. In a process for hydrocracking heavy hydrocarbons which comprises contacting the heavy hydrocarbons, at hydrocracking conditions under hydrogen pressure, with a molten metal halide catalyst system selected from the group consisting of zinc chloride, zinc bromide, zinc iodide, antimony bromide, antimony iodide, tin bromide, titanium iodide, arsenic bromide, arsenic iodide. Hydrocracking is an important source of diesel and jet fuel. Chevron tests heavy oil hydrocracking technology oil. Above, we compare catalytic cracking fcc a carbon rejection process with hydrocracking hydrcrc with respect to the major attributes of both projects. It cracks heavy oil into gasoline and kerosene jet fuel.
Case studies 114,894 bytes to highlight the advantages of two popular vacuum residue upgrading routes, coking and. Hydrotreating is a process widely used in the petroleum industry for producing high quality fuels and as part of a scheme for upgrading heavy crude oil by reducing sulfur, nitrogen andor metal content chen et. A catalytic hydrocracking process for heavy oil containing native asphaltene, comprising. Hydrocracking of heavy oils and residua chemical production. The report then develops the process economics for hydrotreating two heavy oil feedstocks. Hydrocracking operating conditions atmospheric residue ar and vacuum residue vr are the most difficult feed to convert catalytically because they contain in a concentrated form most of the impurities contained in the crude oil and among them, asphaltens and metals essentially nickel and vanadium. Nowadays, there are commercial catalytic hydrocracking. It is important to conduct further research to develop new hydrocracking catalysts based on different types of zeolites. Mar 31, 2020 hydrocracking is a refinery process that converts feedstock into more usable components. Clearly, in a flexible refinery with a wide range of crude oil feedstocks, both processes are needed for the optimum conversion of the crude oil into desirable refinery products. The study compares delayed coking plus hydrotreating vs. One might ask, then, why would any refinery carry out any carbon rejection process instead of hydrogen addition. Catalysts for slurryphase hydrocracking of heavy oil have undergone two. The hydroconversion process of heavy oil and residue is one of the main processes for converting a heavy carbonaceous feedstock to lower.
The process takes place in a hydrogenrich atmosphere at elevated temperatures 500800 f, 260425 c and pressures 35200 bars. Slurry hydrocracking offers the maximum amount of upgrading and produces zero fuel oil. Hydrocracking of heavy oils and residua is increasingly import to refiners due to increased global production of heavy and extra heavy crude oils coupled with increased demand worldwide for low sulfur middle distillates and residual fuel oils. The hoil process uses ebullatedbed hydrocracking technology to process heavy feedstock residues such as vacuum gasoils vgo, deasphalted oils dao, coal derived oils, atmospheric and vacuum residue with high metals, ccr, sulfur, nitrogen, asphaltenes and solid contents that can cause rapid catalyst fouling and contamination. The process consists of causing feed to react with. A process for the hydrocracking of heavy oils andor oil residues, the process comprising the step of contacting the heavy oils andor oil residues with a nonmetallised carbonaceous additive in the presence of a hydrogencontaining gas at a temperature of from 250c to 600c, wherein the nonmetallised carbonaceous additive has an average pore size of at least 2nm. Chevron tests heavy oil hydrocracking technology chevron corp. New hydrogenaddition process yields middle distillates while zeroing fuel oil and coke production from vacuum residue. Refineries use a variety of calculations to determine the ratio of products they should make based on demand, market conditions, and the feedstock they work with. Plant design and engineering advanced hydrocracking technology upgrades extra heavy oil. A mathematical model of a refinery defines the process capacity and product quantity, as shown in the table 1. In contrast, hydrogen addition, as in the processes of hydrogenation and hydrocracking, enables the conversion of all the carbon present in heavy oil or crude oil to high value products without rejecting, or sacrificing, any. Slurryphase hydrocracking of heavy oil and model reactant.568 57 856 1034 1015 1300 488 1390 610 365 1506 96 853 556 386 384 1401 377 230 656 979 1271 1480 313 250 94 410 1049 518 936 1220 52